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Artificial Muscles from Fishing Line and Sewing Thread

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21 Feb 2014: Vol. 343, Issue 6173, pp. 868-872 DOI: 10.1126/science.1246906
Carter S. Haines
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.
Márcio D. Lima
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.
Na Li
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.
Geoffrey M. Spinks
Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia.
Javad Foroughi
Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia.
John D. W. Madden
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Advanced Material and Process Engineering Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada.
Shi Hyeong Kim
Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea.
Shaoli Fang
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.
Mônica Jung de Andrade
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.
Fatma Göktepe
Department of Textile Engineering, Çorlu Engineering Faculty, Namık Kemal University, Çorlu-Tekirdağ, Turkey.
Özer Göktepe
Department of Textile Engineering, Çorlu Engineering Faculty, Namık Kemal University, Çorlu-Tekirdağ, Turkey.
Seyed M. Mirvakili
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Advanced Material and Process Engineering Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada.
Sina Naficy
Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia.
Xavier Lepró
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.
Jiyoung Oh
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.
Mikhail E. Kozlov
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.
Seon Jeong Kim
Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea.
Xiuru Xu
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA. Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.
Benjamin J. Swedlove
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.
Gordon G. Wallace
Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia.
Ray H. Baughman
The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.

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Toward an Artificial Muscle

In designing materials for artificial muscles, the goals are to find those that will combine high strokes, high efficiency, long cycle life, low hysteresis, and low cost. Now, Haines (p. 868 ; see the Perspective by Modal Scarf floral frame by VIDA VIDA LSPqA
) show that this is possible. Twisting high-strength, readily available polymer fibers, such as those used for fishing lines or sewing thread, to the point where they coil up, allowed construction of highly efficient actuators that could be triggered by a number of stimuli.

Abstract

The high cost of powerful, large-stroke, high-stress artificial muscles has combined with performance limitations such as low cycle life, hysteresis, and low efficiency to restrict applications. We demonstrated that inexpensive high-strength polymer fibers used for fishing line and sewing thread can be easily transformed by twist insertion to provide fast, scalable, nonhysteretic, long-life tensile and torsional muscles. Extreme twisting produces coiled muscles that can contract by 49%, lift loads over 100 times heavier than can human muscle of the same length and weight, and generate 5.3 kilowatts of mechanical work per kilogram of muscle weight, similar to that produced by a jet engine. Woven textiles that change porosity in response to temperature and actuating window shutters that could help conserve energy were also demonstrated. Large-stroke tensile actuation was theoretically and experimentally shown to result from torsional actuation.

Science

Vol 343, Issue 617321 February 2014

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Artificial Muscles from Fishing Line and Sewing Thread

By Carter S. Haines , Márcio D. Lima , Na Li , Geoffrey M. Spinks , Javad Foroughi , John D. W. Madden , Shi Hyeong Kim , Shaoli Fang , Mônica Jung de Andrade , Fatma Göktepe , Özer Göktepe , Seyed M. Mirvakili , Sina Naficy , Xavier Lepró , Jiyoung Oh , Mikhail E. Kozlov , Seon Jeong Kim , Xiuru Xu , Benjamin J. Swedlove , Gordon G. Wallace , Ray H. Baughman

August 11, 2015

The city that brought America the bike lane 48 years ago this summer has done it again.

Davis, Calif. (population 66,000, bike commuting rate 20 percent) finished work last week on a new intersection design ordered up by a city council member who had decided that initial plans didn’t measure up to streets he’d ridden on a visit to the Netherlands.

A year later, with the help of Dutch consulting firm Mobycon , Councilmember Brett Lee’s proposal for a tasseled bag charm Red Fendi t6FlX2v9U
has arrived at the intersection of Covell Boulevard and J Street. And as the Davis Enterprise reported Sunday, it’s Small Leather Goods Belts Brian Dales XIz8XzI2
:

It’s exactly what fans of protected intersections would have predicted for a design that arranges traffic so people on bikes and in cars can easily make eye contact with one another without looking over their shoulders.

Davis, it turned out, Modal Scarf November Sounds by VIDA VIDA ybiTJB5F
. Austin has actually already built two protected intersections in a still-uninhabited part of a new development and expects people to start using them in the next few months. It’s planning two more .

Salt Lake City is currently building another and plans to open it downtown in the first week of October. Boston and Sacramento and Menlo Park are planning their own.

“What did surprise me was how intuitive the intersection is,” Davis bicycle coordinator Jennifer Donofrio said Monday. “Observing people use the intersection, they are able to use it without any sort of education or any sort of guidance.”

Why Davis’s new intersection is better

The Davis intersection, which sits on a major east-west street at the entrance to a new mixed-use subdivision on the north edge of town, is unusual in a few ways.

The large street, Covell, offers both a multi-use path on its south side and bike lanes on its road bed. The bike lanes emerge from right-turn slip lanes at other intersections, and Donofrio said they’re generally used by faster and more confident riders.

In this version of the protected intersection, people using the bike lanes have an option to make a 90-degree turn near the intersection behind the eye-shaped corner safety island. But they’re probably more likely to proceed straight across the intersection as they would on any U.S. design.

People on the multi-use path, however, are prompted to bend their path out slightly as they approach the intersection.

This has two big advantages. First, it gives people biking and walking a shorter crossing distance and a head start compared to people driving, so someone turning right in a car can easily see whether they’ll need to yield.

Second, the extra space is just long enough for a car to turn sideways and let other cars moving straight ahead pass behind it. The person in the turning car can see anyone crossing on bike and foot by looking straight ahead, and people in the crosswalk and crossbike can easily tell which cars are making the turn.

Davis’s plans predate the video made last year by designer Nick Falbo, who assembled a list of four basic characteristics of protected intersections in an American context. And it doesn’t include one of his ingredients: bike-friendly signal timing, such as giving people on bike and foot a crossing signal a few seconds before people in cars get one.

Donofrio said Davis had considered this but decided against it because the city decided the additional signal cycle time would “cause backups and could decrease the safety of other parts of the corridor.”

In any case, Donofrio said she’s happy the intersection is working so well so far. With another such intersection already operating in Vancouver, B.C., protected intersections will soon be operating in almost every region of North America, showing people just how easy they are to use.

“When I was out there on Friday, I saw probably six or seven bikes just in the 15 minutes I was out there,” she said. “And all young kids, too. And they were all by themselves, riding through the intersection.”

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There were no standing diagrams on the street, no big street signs attached to traffic light poles announcing the difference between a standard American intersection and the Dutch-styled one people were passing through.

1170 Market Street, Suite 700 San Francisco, CA 94102 p: 415.621.0672 f: 415.621.6744

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