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Jessica Pettway for TIME
February 27, 2018
TIME Health
For more, visit TIME Health .

Modern life is full of emotional challenges. The pressure to succeed, need to “keep up,” fear of missing out and desire for good relationships and work satisfaction can all evoke volatile combinations of emotions.

However, what we learn in our society is not how to work with our emotions, but how to block and avoid them. We do it quite well: Between alcohol use, prescription drug use and screen time, there are a multitude of ways to avoid our feelings. When we do acknowledge them, we swat them away with mantras learned since childhood. (“Mind over matter,” “get a grip” and “suck it up” are familiar ones.) Thwarting emotions is not good for mental or physical health. It’s like pressing on the gas and brakes of your car at the same time, creating an internal pressure cooker.

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Emotions have energy that pushes up for expression, and to tamp them down, our minds and bodies use creative tactics—including muscular constriction and holding our breath. Symptoms like anxiety and Statement Clutch Bo JEPuV
, which are on the rise in the U.S., can stem from the way we deal with these underlying, automatic, hard-wired survival emotions, which are biological forces that should not be ignored. When the mind thwarts the flow of emotions because they are too overwhelming or too conflicting, it puts stress on the mind and the body, creating psychological distress and symptoms. Emotional stress, like that from blocked emotions, has not only been linked to mental ills, but also to physical problems like heart disease, intestinal problems, headaches, insomnia and autoimmune disorders.

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Parapsychologists have come to believe that success or failure in psi experiments has as much to do with the experimenter conducting the experiment as with the subjects themselves. These ‘experimenter effects’ may occur simply because certain experimenters are better than others at motivating subjects to produce psi. However, a more serious possibility is that experimenters unconsciously influence the results, according to whether or not they themselves are psi-conducive.

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Box 611, Jefferson NC 28640.

Contents

Introduction

It is widely accepted in parapsychological circles that certain researchers consistently get better results in their psi experiments than others, regardless of the topic or hypothesis tested. Although there has been no meta-analysis, it is unlikely there would be objections to the claim that the identity of the principal investigator (PI) is the best single predictor we have of the outcome of a psi experiment. (The PI is specified here, because in many experiments published by ‘psi-conducive experimenters’, the testing was actually performed by lab assistants or students of the PI.)

There are two main explanations for the experimenter effect in parapsychology. The first, which can be termed the experimenter behavior hypothesis , is that certain experimenters are better than others in putting participants at ease, motivating them, and increasing their confidence of success. Note that in this case the PI is not relevant: The crucial individual is the experimenter who interacts with the participants.

The second explanation, called the experimenter psi hypothesis , is that psi-conducive experimenters (or PIs) influence the outcome of their experiments by imposing their own psi. The term ‘experimenter psi’ (epsi) will continue to be used here, in accordance with tradition, although ‘investigator psi’ would be more precise. The experimenter need not be the only psi source. There could even be an interaction effect (for instance, the experimenter blocks or enables the participant’s psi).

A comprehensive review of older research on the experimenter behavior hypothesis was published in a book chapter by Rhea White, 1 The bulk of the chapter is devoted to (primarily) forced-choice explicit anomalous cognition (AC) 2 studies.

In some of these early studies, the same procedure was implemented by more than one experimenter and the experimenters got markedly different results. These different results were explained after the fact by noting differences in the way the successful and unsuccessful experimenters interacted with their participants. Often these experimenters had reputations for consistently getting or failing to get significant results in past research. In other experiments, the behavior of the experimenter was manipulated, with the experimenter generally being friendly and supportive in one condition and rude and abrupt in the other. White concluded

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At some point in the nearer-than-might-be-comfortable future, an autonomous vehicle (AV) will find itself in a situation where something has gone wrong, and it has two options: either it can make a maneuver that will keep its passenger safe while putting a pedestrian at risk, or it can make a different maneuver that will keep the pedestrian safe while putting its passenger at risk. What an AV does in situations like these will depend on how it’s been programmed: in other words, what ethical choice its software tells it to make.

If there were clear ethical rules that society could agree on about how AVs should behave when confronted with such decisions, we could just program those in and be done with it. However, there are a near infinite number of possible ethical problems, and within each one, the most ethical course of action can vary from person to person. Furthermore, it’s not just the passengers who have a say in how AVs behave, but also the manufacturers, and more likely than not, government regulators.

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The appeal of this problem for anyone studying ethics or morality is that it’s very easy to make slight changes to the scenario which result in a much different ethical question. One common variation is replacing the lever with a “fat man” that you have to push in front of the trolley to save the five people. Or, five people becomes ten people, but the single person on the other track is a family member. Or, the five people are all elderly, and the single person is a child.

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